Ejecuta comandos shell con Python como un profesional

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Ejecuta comandos shell con Python como un profesional

What are a shell and its importance?

The shell interprets the commands that the user types and sends them to the operating system for execution. The shell is a program that sits between the user and the operating system, it takes the command from the user and translates it into a language that the operating system can understand.

Several different types of shells are available, such as the Bourne shell, the C shell, and the Bourne Again shell (Bash). Each of these shells has its own set of commands and features.

The importance of shell lies in its ability to automate tasks and automate the execution of multiple commands in a sequence. It is also useful for system administration, troubleshooting, and performing complex tasks which are difficult to do via GUI. Shells provide a way to access and control the underlying operating system, making it easy to perform file management, process management, and system administration tasks. Additionally, shells provide a scripting capability, allowing users to automate tasks and perform complex operations with a single command.

Also Read: Do I need to know math to learn python

The shell environment is often called a command prompt on Windows and a terminal on Linux systems. To open Command Prompt in Windows, press Win+R, type cmd, and press Enter. On Linux, you can open the terminal by pressing Ctrl+Alt+T. Press Cmd+Space, type terminal, and press Enter if you're on Mac OS.

While most users prefer GUI-based tools, advanced operations often use the command prompt. For example, data scientists and programmers use shell commands to manage files, directories, and software. In addition, CLIs can be used in batch scripts or cron jobs to automate repetitive tasks.

In Windows, the shell is software that allows you to interact with the operating system through a "command line," also known as a terminal on Linux and Mac. You can open a command prompt in Windows using Windows+R » type cmd » Enter.

Python modules for interaction with OS:

Several Python modules can interact with the operating system (OS). Some of the most commonly used ones include:

  1. OS: This module provides a way to interact with the OS's filesystem and execute system commands. It can perform tasks such as creating, deleting, and renaming files and directories, changing file permissions and executing system commands.
  2. Sys: This module provides access to various system-specific parameters and functions. It can interact with the interpreter and the environment in which the Python script is running.
  3. Subprocess: This module allows the execution of shell commands and to spawn of new processes. It can be used to run external programs and capture their output.
  4. Shutil: This module provides a higher-level interface for file and directory operations, such as copying, moving, and archiving files and directories.
  5. Pathlib: This module provides an object-oriented way of working with file paths. It allows for a more pythonic way of interacting with the file system.
  6. Psutil: This module allows you to retrieve information on system utilization (CPU, memory, disks, network, sensors) and system uptime and users.
  7. Platform: This module provides an easy way to determine the current platform (Windows, Linux, etc.) and version of the operating system.

Why use Python for shell?

Following are some reasons that show the usefulness of running shell commands with Python:

  1. Large and active community: Python has a large and active community that has developed various libraries and modules for different tasks, including interacting with the operating system.
  2. Extensive Standard Library: Python's extensive standard library makes it easy to perform various system-level tasks, such as file and directory operations, process management, and system administration.
  3. Simple yet powerful syntax: The language has a simple yet powerful syntax that makes it easy to write both readable and maintainable scripts.
  4. Object-oriented programming: Python offers advanced features such as object-oriented programming, which allows for creation of reusable and modular code.
  5. Versatile: Python can be easily integrated with other languages and technologies, making it a versatile choice for shell scripting.
  6. Interpreted nature: Python's interpreted nature means that scripts can be run without requiring a separate compilation step, saving time and effort.
  7. Interactive nature: The interactive nature of Python allows for easy testing and debugging of shell scripts.
  8. Widely used and popular: Python is a widely-used and popular programming language, so it is easy to find resources and help for any issues you might encounter.

Use the OS module:

The os module in Python provides a way to interact with the operating system's filesystem and execute system commands. It can be used to perform tasks such as:

Also Read: Python Desktop application Frameworks

  1. File and directory operations: The os module provides functions to create, delete, and rename files and directories, change file permissions, and get information about files and directories.
  2. Process management: The os module provides functions to spawn new processes, kill processes, and get information about running operations.
  3. Environment variables: The os module allows access to the operating system's environment variables, which can be used to configure the application's behavior or the system.
  4. System commands: The os module provides functions to execute system commands, such as "ls" or "mkdir", and capture their output.
  5. File paths manipulation: The os module provides functions for manipulating file paths, such as joining paths, splitting paths, normalizing paths, and more.
  6. System information: The os module provides functions for obtaining information about the system, such as the current working directory, the platform the program is running on, and the user id.

An example of using the os module to create a new directory:

import os  # create a new directoryos.mkdir("new_directory")  # check if the directory existsprint(os.path.exists("new_directory")) #True

Another example of using the os module to change the current working directory and list the files in it:

import os  #change the current working directoryos.chdir("/path/to/directory")  #list the files in the current working directoryprint(os.listdir())

In summary, the os module in Python provides a powerful and easy way to interact with the operating system's filesystem and execute system commands, making it a valuable tool for automating tasks and system administration.

TWT Staff

TWT Staff

Writes about Programming, tech news, discuss programming topics for web developers (and Web designers), and talks about SEO tools and techniques